Explain network topology .Explain tis types with its advantages and disadvantges.

Network topology Network topology refers to how the nodes and links in a network are arranged. A network node is a device that can send, receive, store, or forward data. A network link connects nodes and may be either cabled or wireless links. Understanding topology types provides the basis for building a successful network. There are a number of topologies but the most common are bus, ring, star, and mesh: A bus network topology is when every network node is directly connected to a main cable. In a ring topology, nodes are connected in a loop, so each device has exactly two neighbors. Adjacent pairs are connected directly; non-adjacent pairs are connected indirectly through multiple nodes. In a star network topology, all nodes are connected to a single, central hub and each node is indirectly connected through that hub.  A mesh topology is defined by overlapping connections between nodes. You can create a full mesh topology, where every node in the network is connected to every other

Computer Architecture

Computer Architecture  Computer architecture is a specification detailing how a set of software and hardware technology standards interact to form a computer system or platform. In short, computer architecture refers to how a computer system is designed and what technologies it is compatible with. A very good example of computer architecture is von Neumann's architecture, which is still used by most types of computers today. This was proposed by the mathematician John von Neumann in 1945. It describes the design of an electronic computer with its CPU, which includes the arithmetic logic unit, control unit, registers, memory for data and instructions, an input/output interface, and external storage functions. Computer architecture comprises rules, methods, and procedures that describe the execution and functionality of the entire computer system. In general terms, computer architecture refers to how a computer system is designed using compatible technologies.  Computer architecture

How thread is different from task? How thread programming is done?

  Thread is different from the task in the following ways:- A t ask  describes a program that may need input files and generate output files as a result of its execution and applications are a collection of tasks. Tasks are submitted for execution, and their Output data is gathered at the conclusion. The way tasks are produced, the sequence in which they are executed, and whether they need data interchange to distinguish the application models that come under the task programming umbrella.  A Task may be used to indicate what you want to perform, and then that Task may be attached to a Thread. Threads are utilized to finish the task by splitting it up into pieces and executing them individually in a distributed system. A  thread  is a fundamental unit of CPU utilization that consists of a program counter, a stack, and a collection of registers. Threads have their program and memory areas. A thread of execution is the shortest series of programmed instructions that a scheduler can handl

Discuss the different types of hypervisors.

  HYPERVISOR A hypervisor (also known as a virtual machine monitor, VMM, or virtualizer) is a type of computer software, firmware or hardware that creates and runs virtual machines. A computer on which a hypervisor runs one or more virtual machines is called a host machine, and each virtual machine is called a guest machine. The hypervisor presents the guest operating systems with a virtual operating platform and manages the execution of the guest operating systems.  The term hypervisor is a variant of supervisor, a traditional term for the kernel of an operating system: the hypervisor is the supervisor of the supervisors, with hyper- used as a stronger variant of super. A hypervisor is a function that abstracts, or separates, operating systems and applications from the underlying computer hardware. This abstraction enables the underlying host machine hardware to run one or more virtual machines as guests independently, allowing numerous guest VMs to effectively share the sys

Differentiate public cloud from private cloud.

 Cloud Computing Cloud Computing is the delivery of on-demand IT resources (such as the Internet, database, Server, Big-Data, etc ) implemented on the internet to process, manage and store data. In cloud computing, we can pay for only those resources which we have used. Benefits of Cloud Computing: Data backup and Storage of data Powerful server capabilities Incremental Productivity Cost-effective and Time-saving Agility (Access to a broad range of technology) Elasticity    The differentiating public cloud from the private cloud. Public Cloud :  The cloud services which are exposed to the public and can be used by anyone are called public clouds. The public cloud is owned, managed, and operated by businesses, universities, and government organizations. In the public cloud, data centers are located anywhere on the internet.  P rivate Cloud: The cloud services which are private in the internal network within the organizations and selected users instead of the general publ

Describe cloud service requirements.

  CLOUD SERVICE REQUIREMENTS 1. Efficiency/cost reduction By using cloud infrastructure, you don’t have to spend huge amounts of money on purchasing and maintaining equipment. 2. Data security Cloud offers many advanced security features that guarantee that data is securely stored and handled. Cloud storage providers implement baseline protections for their platforms and the data they process, such as authentication, access control, and encryption. 3. Scalability Different companies have different IT needs — a large enterprise of 1000+ employees won’t have the same IT requirements as a start-up. Using the cloud is a great solution because it enables enterprises to efficiently — and quickly — scale up/down according to business demands. 4. Mobility Cloud computing allows mobile access to corporate data via smartphones and devices, which is a great way to ensure that no one is ever left out of the loop. Staff with busy schedules, or who live a long way away from the corporate of

What is Map-Reduce Programming? Describe how enterprise batch processing is done using map- reduce?

 MapReduce  MapReduce is triggered by the map and reduces operations in functional languages, such as Lisp. This model abstracts computation problems through two functions: map and reduce. All problems formulated in this way can be parallelized automatically. All data processed by MapReduce are in the form of key/value pairs. The execution happens in two phases. In the first phase, a map function is invoked once for each input key/value pair and it can generate output key/value pairs as intermediate results. In the second one, all the intermediate results are merged and grouped by keys. The reduce function is called once for each key with associated values and produces output values as the final results. A map function takes a key/value pair as input and produces a list of key/value pairs as output. The type of output key and value can be different from input key and value: map::(key1,value1) => list(key2,value2) A reduce function takes a key and associated value list as input and g