Showing posts with the label 2071 Past Question

Explain Data Warehouse Features /Characteristics / Nature of Data Warehouse.

 Data Warehouse Features /Characteristics / Nature of Data Warehouse The key features of a data warehouse are: Subject-oriented: A data warehouse is organized around major subjects such as customer, supplier, product, and sales. Rather than concentrating on the day-to-day operations and transaction processing of an organization, a data warehouse focuses on the modeling and analysis of data for decision-makers. Hence, data warehouses typically provide a simple and concise view of particular subject issues by excluding data that are not useful in the decision support process.  Integrated: A data warehouse is usually constructed by integrating multiple heterogeneous sources, such as relational databases, flat files, and online transaction records. Data cleaning and data integration techniques are applied to ensure consistency in naming conventions, encoding structures, attribute measures, and so on. Time-variant : Data is stored to provide information from a historic perspective (e.g., th

What are the key steps involved in the knowledge discovery process in database?

 Knowledge Discovery in Database (KDD) Knowledge discovery in databases (KDD) is the process of discovering useful knowledge from a collection of data. The steps involved in the knowledge discovery process: Data Cleaning: data cleaning is a process of removing unnecessary and inconsistent data from the databases. The main purpose of cleaning is to improve the quality of the data by filling in the missing values, configuring the data to make sure that it is an inconsistent format. Data Integration: In this step data from various sources such as databases, data warehouses, and transactional data are combined. Data Selection: Data that is required for the data mining process can be extracted from multiple and heterogeneous data sources such as databases, files, etc. Data selection is a process where the appropriate data required for analysis is fetched from the databases. Data Transformation: : In the transformation stage data extracted from multiple data sources are converted into an app

How can we achieve good governance through e-governance model?

#Torwards Good Governance through E-Governance  The digital governance models bring about a transformation in the existing forms of governance as they change the nature of citizen-governance relationships and bring in new agents and mechanisms to influence the governance processes. They foster democratic control over the government's economic, social, and welfare policies by citizens and civil society organizations- a key process required for and responsive governance.              The changes brought about in the citizen-governance relationship through digital governance are fourfold: 1. They open up avenues for the flow of information both vertically and laterally to encompass a wider foundation of civil society. A greater density of information flow is achieved between government and civil society, or within civil society itself. The right to voice and expression gets gradually embedded among citizens through means. 2. Information becomes difficult to be capitalized by a few f

What is e-governance? Discuss the issues in e-governance applications and the digital divide.

E-Governance  It is a part of e-Government. E-Governance is dealing with all regulations and policies to control the services provided by the e-Government. However, the E-Government is an electronic government, which should be regulated by the E-Governance. Moreover, e-Governance refers to the utilization of information and communication technology (ICT) for providing government services, disseminating information, communication operations with the general public. Issues in the e-governance application 1)Technology Issues  Three basic elements       a) infrastructure layer         b) application layer        c) integration technology The application layer is made up of software and services that either extend the site's performance or make it easier to manage. The integration layer is to use the Internet to tie together practically all the traditional disciplines associated with various services provided by the website. a) Infrastructure layer a) Carrier Basic element by which site

Explain Software maintenance and its types.

Software Maintenance - Software maintenance is a natural part of SDLC (software development life cycle).   - Software Maintenance is the process of modifying a software product after it has been delivered to the customer.  - The main purpose of software maintenance is to modify and update software applications after delivery to correct faults and to improve performance. - Software Maintenance is an activity in which a program is modified after it had been put into use. - In Software Maintenance usually, it is not preferred to apply major software changes to the system’s architecture. - Maintenance is a process in which changes are implemented by either modifying the existing system’s architecture p\or by adding new components to the system. - Software Maintenance is an inclusive activity that includes error corrections, enhancement of capabilities, deletion of obsolete capabilities, and optimization. - Software maintenance is the process of changing, modifying, and updating software to

What do you mean by Software project management ? Explain Project planning and Project scheduling .

  Software project management - Software project management is an art and discipline of planning and supervising software projects. It is a sub-discipline of software project management in which software projects planned, implemented, monitored, and controlled. - It is a procedure of managing, allocating, and timing resources to develop computer software that fulfills requirements. - In software Project Management, the client and the developers need to know the length, period, and cost of the project.               OR, - Software Project Management (SPM) is a proper way of planning and leading software projects. It is a part of project management in which software projects are planned, implemented, monitored and controlled.  - Project management focuses on developing a product that will have a positive effect on an organization. Without project management, a software development team may begin working on a project without any clear vision or guidance, resulting in more frequent errors

Discuss the importance of project management. What are the different sections of project plan.

The importance of project management is an important topic because all organizations be it small or large at one time or other are involved in implementing now undertakings. These undertakings may be diverse such as the development of a new product on service; the establishment of a new production line in a manufacturing enterprise, a public relations promotion campaign, or a major building program. Project management involves systematically planning and implementing activities to ensure project completion on time within budget and to the requirement specification. Project management effectively controls organizational change allowing organizations to introduce new products new, processes, and new programs effectively. Project management concepts & techniques can be applied to a broad range of projects such as the building of a block of apartments,  a bridge, or a new aircraft,  the design and development of an s/w package,  the planning, and staging of an event. A different sectio

Explain the Software process activities or, Explain the Software specification, software validation, and software evolution.

 Software Process Activities  - The structured set of activities required to develop a software system like: specification, design, validation, and evolution are called software process activities. - The process activities are organized differently in different development models. How these activities are carried out depends on the type of software, people, and, organizational structure involved. - Following are the major software process activities: ° Software specification ° Software design and implementation ° Software validation ° Software evolution 1 ) Software specification - Software specification or requirement engineering is the process of understanding and defining what services are required from the system and identifying the constraints on the systems and operation and development. - Software specification leads to the production of a requirement document that specifies a software satisfying stakeholder's requirement.