Showing posts with the label BSc CSIT 8th Semester

Describe how cloud computing is used in business and consumer applications.

  BUSINESS AND CONSUMER APPLICATIONS  Cloud computing innovations are likely to help the commercial and consumer sectors the most. On the one hand, the ability to convert capital expenses into operating costs makes clouds an appealing alternative for any IT-centric business. On the other hand, the cloud's feeling of ubiquity in terms of accessing data and services makes it appealing to end-users. Furthermore, because cloud technologies are elastic, they do not necessitate large upfront investments, allowing innovative ideas to be easily converted into products and services that can readily scale with demand.

What do you mean by cloud? Describe about the basic characteristics of cloud.

 Cloud The “cloud” in cloud computing can be defined as the set of hardware, networks, storage, services, and interfaces that combine to deliver aspects of computing as a service. Cloud services include the delivery of software, infrastructure, and storage over the Internet. A cloud service is any service made available to users on demand via the Internet from a cloud computing provider's servers as opposed to being provided from a company's own premises servers explained before, the most common cloud service is that one offers data storage disks and virtual servers, i.e. infrastructure. Examples of Infrastructure-as-a-Service (IaaS) companies are Amazon, Rackspace, and Flexi scale. Cloud computing is the use of computing resources (hardware and software) that are delivered as a service over a network (typically the Internet).  Cloud computing is the on-demand availability of computer system resources, especially data storage (cloud storage) and computing power, without direct

Explain Microsoft Azure Platform (MAP) in detail.

 Microsoft Azure Platform (MAP) Microsoft Azure, originally known as Windows Azure, is a public cloud computing platform developed by Microsoft offering solutions such as Infrastructure as a Service (IaaS), Platform as a Service (PaaS), Software as a Service (SaaS) that can be used for analytics, virtual computing, storage, networking, and and much more. It offers a variety of cloud services such as computation, analytics, storage, and networking. Users can select among these services to create and grow new applications, as well as run existing apps on the public cloud. It may be used to augment or replace your on-premises servers. The Azure platform is designed to assist organizations in managing difficulties and meeting organizational goals. It provides tools for all industries, including e-commerce, banking, and several Fortune 500 organizations, and is compatible with open-source technology. This gives users the freedom to utilize their favorite tools and technology. Furthermore, A

Explain Google Bigtable.

 GOOGLE BIGTABLE Google Bigtable is a distributed, column-oriented data store developed by Google Inc. to manage massive volumes of structured data related to the company's Internet search and Web services operations. Bigtable was created to enable applications that need large scalability; the technology was meant to be utilized with petabytes of data from its inception. The database was designed to run on clustered servers and has a basic data format described by Google as "a sparse, distributed, permanent multi-dimensional sorted map." The data is placed in order by row key, and the map's indexing is sorted by row, column keys, and timestamps. Algorithms for compression aid in achieving high capacity. BigTable is a petabyte scale, fully managed NoSQL database service designed for big analytical and operational workloads. Google Cloud Bigtable is a NoSQL Big Data database service. It's the same database that underpins many of Google's main services, such as S

Analyze and explain the factors for successful cloud deployment.

CLOUD SECURITY Cloud computing security refers to a collection of control-based technologies and policies meant to comply with regulatory compliance regulations while also protecting information, data applications, and infrastructure involved with cloud computing use. Because the cloud is a shared resource, identity management, privacy, and access control are particularly important. With more enterprises turning to cloud computing and associated cloud providers for data operations, adequate security in these and other potentially susceptible areas has become a top responsibility for enterprises working with a cloud computing provider. Cloud computing security, or simply cloud security, refers to a comprehensive range of rules, technologies, and procedures used to safeguard data, applications, and the related cloud computing infrastructure. It is a subdomain of computer security, network security, and information security in general. Cloud computing security processes should address the

What is MPI? What are its main characteristics? Describe.

MPI applications The Message Passing Interface (MPI) is a de facto standard for creating parallel applications that interact with efficient message-passing. This standard can be used on current HPC clusters. The issue with a computer cluster is that although some CPUs share a memory, others have a dispersed memory architecture and are only connected by a network. Interface specifications have been defined and implemented for C/C++ and Fortran Developers these days can employ distributed memory, shared memory, or a hybrid system of the two, all with the power of MPI. There have been several MPI libraries available through the years, and some of the most popular libraries are MPICH, MVAPICH, Open MPI & Intel MPI, etc. MPI provides developers with a set of routines that/Characteristics are:- :  Manage the distributed environment where MPI programs are executed Provide facilities for point-to-point communication  Provide facilities for group communication Provide support for data struc

Explain Data-intensive computing in detail.

 DATA-INTENSIVE COMPUTING Data-intensive computing is concerned with the generation, manipulation, and analysis of massive amounts of data ranging from hundreds of terabytes (MB) to petabytes (PB) and beyond. The term dataset refers to a collection of information pieces that are useful to one or more applications. Datasets a frequently stored in repositories, which are infrastructures that allow for the storage, retrieval, and indexing of enormous volumes of data. Relevant pieces of information, known as metadata, are tagged to datasets to aid with categorization and search. Data-intensive computations are common in a wide range of application disciplines. One of the most well-known is computational science. People who undertake scientific simulations and experiments are frequently eager to generate, evaluate, and analyze massive amounts of data. Telescopes scanning the sky generate hundreds of terabytes of data per second; the collection of photographs of the sky easily exceeds bytes

Explain virtual machine technology.

 Virtual Machine Technology In virtual machine technology, the hypervisor is an important component. A hypervisor is a specialized software that perfectly emulates the CPU, memory, hard drive, network, and other hardware resources of a PC client or server, allowing virtual computers to share the resources. The hypervisor may replicate various separated virtual hardware platforms, allowing virtual machines to run Linux and Windows Server operating systems on the same underlying physical host. Virtualization saves money by eliminating the requirement for actual hardware devices.  Virtual machines use hardware more effectively, which decreases hardware quantities and related maintenance costs, as well as power and cooling consumption. They also make administration easier since virtual hardware never fails. Virtual environments can help administrators ease backups, disaster recovery, new installations, and fundamental system management duties. Virtual machines do not require the use of spe

Describe the major features to look for in a Virtualization Platform.

  Features to look for in a Virtualization Platform  1. Reduction of Capital Expenditures (CAPEX):  Server usage levels are typically modest, averaging approximately 15%. Virtualization has the potential to double throughput. This implies that a corporation may utilize less hardware and save money on electricity. It is important to note that this must be balanced against the total cost of ownership of the virtualization platform. 2. System Consolidation:  An organization decreases the number of physical servers necessary by running numerous applications and operating systems. This is a method of utilizing computer server resources efficiently to decrease the total number of servers or server locations required by a company. 3. Ease of System Management:  Easy administration in this sense refers to how quickly new services such as platform as a service (PaaS), infrastructure as a service (IaaS), and software as a service (SaaS) can be implemented. It also refers to the agility and rapid

What is the relationship between SOA and cloud architecture?

  The relationship between SOA and cloud architecture, To begin, it is crucial to highlight that Service-Oriented Architecture may be used with or without cloud computing. As more firms move file storage to the cloud, it makes sense to employ cloud computing and Service-Oriented Architecture together. Cloud computing enables users to quickly and easily develop services suited to their clients without needing to consult an IT staff. One disadvantage of combining SOA and Cloud is that some factors, such as security and availability, are not assessed. The integration of current data and systems into the cloud solution is a significant problem for enterprises when combining cloud computing and Service-Oriented Architecture. For the transition to be seamless, there must be continuity from beginning to end. It is also crucial to remember that not every IT function can be outsourced to the cloud. CLOUD DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION USING SOA Elasticity, self-service provisioning, standards-based

Explain Grid computing infrastructure in detail with figure.

GRID COMPUTING INFRASTRUCTURES(Architecture) Grid infrastructure is the bedrock upon which successful grid applications are built. This infrastructure is a complicated amalgamation of a variety of capabilities and resources recognized for the specific challenge and environment at hand. Developers/service providers must evaluate the following considerations in the early phases of implementing any Grid Computing application architecture to define the basic infrastructure support necessary for that environment.  In several phases of deployment, a Grid Computing infrastructure component must handle multiple potentially complex areas. These areas are: Security Resource management Information services Data management Security In the security schemes of a Grid Computing Environment, the diverse nature of resources and the different security regulations are intricate and complex. These computer resources have housed a variety of security domains and platforms. Local security integration, safe

Explain elements of grids.

 ELEMENTS OF GRID Grid computing combines elements such as distributed computing, high-performance computing, and disposable computing depending on the application of the technology and the scale of operation. Grids can create a virtual supercomputer out of the existing servers, workstations, and personal computers. Present-day grids encompass the following types: Computational grids, in which machines will set aside resources to "number crunch" data or provide coverage for other intensive workloads Scavenging grids  are commonly used to find and harvest machine cycles from idle servers and desktop computers for use in resource-intensive tasks (scavenging is usually implemented in a way that is unobtrusive to the owner/user of the processor) Data grids , provide a unified interface for all data repositories in an organization, and through which data can be queried, managed, and secured.  Market-oriented grids, d eal with price-setting and negotiation, grid economy management

Explain cloud architecture(IAAS) with its component.

 CLOUD ARCHITECTURE-IAAS The basic layer of the cloud architecture, which is made up of basic components such as computation and management resources, needs the greatest technical expertise to create and install. The components most typically given by companies who supply IaaS solutions to their clients make up the basic basis upon which a cloud is created, as depicted in figure 1.14. Infrastructure as a Service (IaaS) is a cloud computing concept in which the whole infrastructure is provided on demand. This nearly invariably takes the shape of a virtualized infrastructure and infrastructure services that allow customers to deploy virtual machines as components that can be managed through a console. The cloud provider manages the actual resources such as servers, storage, and networks, while the use manages the infrastructure built on top of those components. Each component in this layer of the architecture is responsible for supplying actionable data to the other components and comple

What are the following measures are taken for compliance assessment to ensure the security and accountability of data and applications in the cloud services:

 The following measures are taken for compliance assessment to ensure the security and accountability of data and applications in the cloud services: Matching the security requirements of the organization with the security capabilities of the cloud service provider. Analyzing the security policies of the cloud service provider along with a history of transparency and security-related practices. Proper understanding of the technical aspects of data and traffic flow. Proper understanding and documentation of the roles and responsibilities of the cloud service provider. Understanding of the certifications and compliances that can be leveraged from the cloud service provider.

What are five key capabilities are required to make enterprise IDaaS solutions possible:

 Five key capabilities are required to make enterprise IDaaS solutions possible:  1. Single Sign-on (SSO):  With SSO, employees, partners, and customers have simple, quick, and secure access to all SaaS, mobile, and enterprise apps with a single login utilizing corporate credentials.  2. Multi-factor Authentication (MFA):  Adaptive authentication methods-options to scale up as risk grows depending on scenario changes, user behavior, or application sensitivity are common in MFA. 3. Access Security:  Access security is policy-based access control for apps and APIs that goes beyond SSO to improve security.  4. Directory:  While most organizations choose to link IDaaS with their current user databases, a cloud directory may be used, particularly to assist customers and/or partners.  5. Provisioning:  User data is synchronized with online and corporate apps via SCIM support and connection with on-premises provisioning.

Short note on Identity as a Service (IDaaS).

 IDENTITY-AS-A-SERVICE (IDAAS) Identity as a Service (IDaaS) is a third-party authentication infrastructure that is designed, hosted, and maintained by a service provider. IDaaS may be thought of as a cloud-based single sign-on (SSO). A business IDaaS is often acquired as a subscription-based managed service. A cloud service provider may also charge a subscription to host apps and give users role-based access to certain programs or even full virtualized desktops via a secure portal. Employees at a corporation must log in to the system to execute numerous duties. These systems may be hosted on a local server or in the cloud.  The following are some of the issues that an employee may encounter: Keeping track of various login and password combinations for accessing many servers.  When an employee quits the organization, it is necessary to disable all of that user's accounts. To address the aforementioned issues, a new technology called Identity-as-a-Service evolved (IDaaS). As a digit

Explain cloud computing reference model .

 CLOUD COMPUTING REFERENCE MODEL The cloud computing reference model is a general high-level architecture and is meant for a cloud computing reference architecture provided, which outlines the primary performer/actor and the understanding of the cloud computing needs, uses, features, and standards. An overview of the NIST primary players, as indicated in the figure below. Each performer is an entity that might be a person or a cloud computing activity and role. The NIST cloud computing reference architecture identifies five organization that takes part in a transaction or process and complete duties in cloud computing. 1. Cloud consumer:  The cloud consumer is the cloud computing service's most significant stakeholder. A cloud consumer is a person or organization who has a commercial connection with a cloud provider and consumes its services. A cloud consumer browses a cloud provider's service catalog, requests the right service, establishes service contracts with the cloud pro

Explain Cloud computing management

 CLOUD COMPUTING MANAGEMENT The cloud provider should manage the resources and their performance. Resource management encompasses several areas of cloud computing, such as load balancing, performance, storage, backup capacity, and deployment. Management is required to access the full capability of those cloud resources Cloud management is the process of reviewing, monitoring, and optimizing cloud computing systems and services to achieve the desired efficiency, performance, and overall service quality. Cloud management is the practice of overseeing the cloud environment from start to finish by an organization, a cloud service vendor, or both. It guarantees that cloud computing services are supplied and operated in the most efficient manner possible. The exercise of administrative control over public, private, and hybrid clouds is referred to as cloud management. Users may keep control over these dynamic and scalable cloud computing environments with a well-implemented cloud management

Explain cloud testing strategy component and Advantages of Using Cloud-Based Testing Tools.

 CLOUD TESTING STRATEGY COMPONENTS INCLUDE Performance and Load Testing: Ascertain that a cloud solution fits the business needs unique cloud computing.  Stress Testing and Recovery Testing: Ensure data recovery following a hardware failure.  Security Testing: Ensures that a cloud solution fulfills data security standards. System Integration Testing: Addresses functional aspects of the system. User Acceptance Testing: Ensures that the cloud solution satisfies the business's or personal users documented needs. Interoperability and Compatibility Testing: Guarantees cloud service and vendor migration In addition to identifying relevant testing types, cloud testing teams focus on the following aspects: Security risks Multiple Web browser support User interface issues User data accessibility Advantages of Using Cloud-Based Testing Tools When compared to traditional test automation tools, the total cost of ownership of cloud-based testing technologies is quite low. Cloud-based product

Explain Cloud testing/Testing under control.

 TESTING UNDER CONTROL Cloud testing is a subtype of software testing in which cloud-based online applications are tested using simulated, real-world online traffic. Cloud testing also evaluates and verifies certain cloud features, such as redundancy and performance scalability. Cloud solutions have been used by several small to medium-sized IT firms. As a result, cloud testing is required to confirm functional system and business requirements. In addition to cloud experience, cloud testing engineers must be familiar with various types of testing and technologies. Cloud testing often includes monitoring and reporting on real-world user traffic situations, as well as load balancing and stress testing for a variety of simulated usage scenarios. Load and performance testing on cloud computing applications and services, particularly the ability to use these services, to guarantee optimal performance and scalability under a wide range of scenarios. Cloud computing presents various difficult